As discussed in a recent Naturespeak, the Sea-to Sky corridor is the summer home to three species of hummingbird. The most common is the Rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus). Much rarer are the Calliope hummingbird (Stellula calliope) and the Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna).
The elliptical migration paths of these three hummingbirds species take advantage of seasonally available flowers. The spring migration from their wintering grounds in Mexico and/or southern California begins in early February and follows the west coast, while the autumn migration occurs along the interior Rocky Mountains.
Flying consumes a great deal of a hummingbird's energy. Their wings beat between 20 and 200 times per second. Normal flight speed is about 45 km/h. Hummingbirds have, in relation to their size, the largest breast muscles of all birds at 30 per cent of their total weight and allows for an upstroke that provides as much power as their downstroke. To power their flight the hummingbird has a heart rate of up to 1,260 beats per minute. In comparison the human heart beats about 72 times per minute.
Once they arrive at their winter and summer grounds as well as stops along their migratory route, hummingbirds select and protect a territory. Territory sizes vary, with each individual hummingbird seeming to know just how many flowers it will need to forage to get enough food. If the area is abundant with flowers the territory will be small, but if the flowers are few and far between the territory will be much larger. In fact, in one study, after scientists put a blanket over some of the flowers in a hummingbirds territory, the bird expanded its territory to compensate.
Other studies have indicated that hummingbirds will exploit the flowers along the periphery of its territory at dawn and dusk, in order to deplete the nectar most accessible to competitors throughout the day.
Hummingbirds have been described as adamant, aggressive and feisty protectors of their territory. They will wage war on all invaders of their territory whether they be insects, other bird species or other members of their own species, male or female. They intercept these intruders with air attacks using their bills and claws, as well as angry buzzing vocalizations.
A hummingbirds adamant selection and protection of its territory can be explained by the fact that they must consume at least half of their total weight in food and twice their weight in water per day. This is required due to their small size and the energy they expend in flight, feeding growth, reproduction as well as maintaining their warm-blooded body temperature.
Despite these immense levels of required consumption, hummingbirds do not feed constantly. They make approximately 14-18, 45-second foraging bouts per hour. For the remainder of the time a hummingbird will perch and oversee its territory for invaders.