Are mushrooms fungi?
By Kristina Swerhun,
Whistler Naturalist Society
Yes, of course mushrooms are fungi, but not all fungi are mushrooms. We are familiar with fungi that produce relatively large, showy reproductive structures such as mushrooms, truffles, puffballs, shelf, and cup fungi, but in reality they are less than 1 per cent of the described species. The majority of fungus produce reproductive structures not visible to the unaided eye and include yeast in bread, fermentors in wine, and sources of antibiotics. Here are some other fun fungal facts.
The most familiar kind of mushroom has a cap with gills (radiating blades) on its underside. Millions of microscopic reproductive units called spores are discharged from the gills and dispersed by air currents. Only a small percentage of spores land in a favourable environment, where they germinate to form new fungi.
Although fungi have been traditionally grouped with plants, they have no direct evolutionary connection. Fungi are as distinct from plants as they are from animals or insects, although they share similarities with each. Unlike plants, fungi lack chlorophyll and therefore are unable to manufacture their own food from sunlight. Like animals and insects, they must feed themselves by absorbing carbon compounds from the immediate environment. Fungi have evolved enzymes for digesting substrates such as chitin (insect exoskeletons), keratin (hair, skin, horn, feathers), cellulose (most plant material), and even lignin (wood).
How else are fungi like insects and plants? The part of the mushroom fungus that digests nutrients is an intricate web of fine threads collectively called the mycelium (plural: mycelia). Individually they are called hyphae and their walls that extend through the soil or aggregate to form a mushroom or other type of sporocarp (fruiting bodies that produce spores) are mainly composed of chitin and cellulose. Chitin is part of the exoskeletons of insects but is found nowhere in the plant kingdom. Cellulose occurs in wood and most plant material.
Mushrooms, or more exactly the fungi that produce them, are a vital part of our environment. Despite some having a bad name, the overwhelming majority are beneficial. A few are parasitic , feeding on living organisms, usually trees. The rest are either saprophytic or mycorrhizal. Saprophytic fungi are natures recyclers. They replenish the soil by breaking down complex organic matter (wood, dung, humus, etc.) into simpler, reusable compounds. Mycorrhizal fungi form a mutually beneficial relationship with the rootlets of plants in which nutrients are exchanged. They are critical to the health of our forests, as many trees will not grow without them.
The fall is the ideal time to develop a passion for local fungi. Although we do have some mushrooms that make an appearance in the spring, the real show begins as the nights become cool and moist and the autumn rains begin to fall.
The Whistler Naturalist Society is putting on a two-day event in October to celebrate everything weird, wild and wonderful about mushrooms!
Friday, Oct. 17, 7:30 p.m. (doors open at 7 p.m.) Millennium Place Mushrooms: Mysterious, Magical and Marvelous! A presentation by Sharmin Gamiet. Sharmin is a Mycologist and Consultant in Mycology Resources, and an expert on the biodiversity of mushrooms in British Columbia. Sharmin has also created a Web site on B.C. mushrooms that can be checked out at http://bcmushrooms.forrex.org Be prepared for a fascinating journey into the world of fungi. Suggested donation: $9 for non-members, $5 for members.
Saturday, Oct. 18, 9 a.m.noon. Mushroom Walk (Fungal Foray). Meet at Spruce Grove Field House. Local Todd Bush and Friday night speaker Sharmin Gamiet will lead a nature walk focusing on fungi right here in Whistler. They will be identifying local mushroom species, whats edible, whats poisonous, and other fascinating mushroom facts. Kids are free. $5 for members, $10 for non-members.
Saturday, Oct. 18, noon-1 p.m. Cooking with mushrooms demonstration from local chef and mushroom enthusiast Ofra Buckmen. You will be able to sample cuisine creations using wild mushrooms and get direction on how to create wonderful mushroom dishes. $5 per person entitles you to a taster of fungi fare (free if you came on the walk).
For more information on the upcoming events or to learn more about the Whistler Naturalist Society, please contact Veronica Woodruff at firstname.lastname@example.org or 604-935-8323.